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Tuesday, April 16, 2024

Role of Philosophers in French Revolution and World: Montesquieu, Rousseau


In world philosophy of prominent philosopher’s played a great role for development of our new society by their modern political, economical and great thoughts. Meaning of philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The first account of philosophy composed can be found in the ancient Hindu Vedas.French revolution was another example of great philosophies by great philosophers like Montesquieu, jean Jacques Rousseau and other philosopher.

MONTESQUIEU (1689 – 1755)

  •  Montesquieu was the French philosopher.
  •  He wrote the book ‘THE SPIRIT OF LAW’ in 1748.
  • This theory explains the idea of SEPARATION OF POWER
    and the constitutional form of government.
  •  According to this theory the every government divided
    into three powers :
    •  LEGISLATURE (to make laws only)
    • THE EXECUTIVE (to implement the laws make by
    •  THE JUDICIARY ( to check this laws)
  •  The modern idea of separation of power is to be found in
    one of the most important 18th century works on political
  • According to Montesquieu, the purpose of government is
    to maintain law and order and political liberty.
  • The Montesquieu theory completely changed the three
    estates structure of the French revolution.
  •  This theory plays completely revolutionary role In the
    French society.
  •  The separation of power makes a good administration.
  • The model of Montesquieu adopted in the U.S.A after the
  • 13 colonies declared their independence from Britain.


  •  The Jean Jacques Rousseau was a Geneva philosopher but his philosophy influenced the Europe and French revolution by their modern political, economic and educational thought.
  • The Rousseau wrote the book ‘THE SOCIAL CONTRACT’ in 1762.
  •  This book was changing the old political and social thoughts.
  •  Rousseau believed in ‘EQUAL VOTING RIGHT’ by the direct democracy in which everyone voted to express the general will and make the laws.
  •  French revolution was also inspired or influenced by jean Jacques modern thinking of ‘INEQUALITY’ in society of that time in France.
  • The American Revolution was also influenced by Rousseau thoughts (ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL).
  • Rousseau exercised influence on the founding fathers of the United States.


  •  This theory really helped the 18 th , 19 th and 20 th century country to change and adopted the modern thoughts and theory by philosophers.
  •  Many countries adopted the Montesquieu (separation of power) and Rousseau (equal voting right or direct democracy) like America, India and etc.
  •  Many countries adopted the theory but they are being not followed properly.

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